The personality traits of the "big 5" | Crowe Associates (2023)

The Big Five personality traits are the most widely accepted and used personality model in academic psychology. The Big Five come from the statistical study of responses to personality elements. Using a technique called factor analysis, researchers can look at people's responses to hundreds of personality traits and ask the question"What's the best way to sum up a person?"🇧🇷 This was done with many examples from around the world and the overall result is that while there are seemingly limitless personality variables, five stand out from the crowd when it comes to explaining many of a person's responses to questions about their personality. personality: extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. The big five factors and their constituent characteristics can be summarized as an acronym for "OCEAN":

  • open to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). I appreciate art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity and diversity of experiences.
  • conscientiousness– (efficient/organized vs. tolerant/easygoing). A tendency to show self-discipline, act diligently and strive for achievement; Planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
  • extroversion– (extroverted/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, urgency and a tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
  • compatibility – (friendly/understanding vs. cold/hostile). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others rather than suspicious and hostile.
  • neuroticism– (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). A tendency to easily experience uncomfortable emotions, such as anger, fear, depression, or vulnerability.

The five general factors were discovered and defined by several independent research groups. These researchers started by examining known personality traits and then analyzed hundreds of measures of those traits—in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures of experimental settings—to find the underlying personality factors.

The original model was developed by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961, but it did not reach the academic public until the 1980s. In 1990, J.M. Digman developed his five factor model of personality. These five general domains have been found to contain and encompass the most well-known personality traits and are believed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.

Because the big five traits are broad and all-encompassing, they are not as powerful as the numerous lower-level traits for predicting and explaining actual behavior. Many studies have confirmed that more numerous facets or primary level features are more effective in predicting actual behavior.

When qualifying for individual feedback, these characteristics are usually represented as percentage values. For example, a conscientiousness score at the 80th percentile indicates a relatively strong sense of responsibility and order, while an extraversion score at the 5th percentile indicates an exceptional need for solitude and silence. While these trait groups are statistical aggregates, exceptions may exist for individual personality profiles.

Openness to experience is one of the domains used to describe human personality in the five factor model. implies opennessactive imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attention to inner feelings, taste for variety and intellectual curiosity.Many psychometric studies have shown that these qualities are statistically correlated. Therefore, openness can be seen as an overall personality trait, made up of a set of specific traits, habits and tendencies that come together.

(Video) The Big Five Personality Traits

Opening is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experiences. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, artistic, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be more creative and aware of their feelings compared to closed people. They are more prone to unconventional beliefs. People with low scores on Openness tend to have more conventional and traditional interests. They prefer the simple, direct and obvious to the complex, ambiguous and subtle. They may be suspicious of the arts and sciences, or even see these endeavors as uninteresting.

The opening is typically distributed normally, with a small number of people scoring extremely high or low on this feature, and most people being close to average. People with low opening scores are considered closed to the experience. They tend to be conventional and traditional in their attitude and behavior. They prefer familiar routines to new experiences and generally have a more limited range of interests.

The mental health of people open to experience is no different from that of people closed to experience. There is no association between openness and neuroticism or any other measure of psychological well-being. Being open and closed to experience are just two different ways of relating to the world.

According to a study by Sam Gosling, you can gauge openness by examining people's homes and workspaces. People who are very open to experience tend to have distinctive and unconventional decorations. They are also likely to have books on a variety of subjects, a diverse collection of music and artwork on display.

This personality trait has social and political implications. People who are very open to experience tend to be politically liberal and tolerant of diversity. As a result, they are generally more open to other cultures and lifestyles.

Examples of opening elements

  • I have a rich vocabulary.
  • I have an overactive imagination.
  • I have excellent ideas.
  • I pick things up quickly.
  • I use difficult words.
  • I spend time thinking about things.
  • I'm full of ideas.
  • I'm not interested in abstractions. (invested)
  • I don't have a good imagination. (invested)
  • I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.

Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act appropriately, and strive to achieve achievements against external measures or expectations. The trait exhibits a preference for planned over spontaneous behavior. Affects the way we control, regulate and direct our impulses

Conscientiousness is the quality of being diligent and meticulous, or the quality of acting in accordance with the dictates of one's conscience. It includes elements such as self-discipline, diligence, thoroughness, organization, deliberation (the tendency to think carefully before acting), and the pursuit of achievement. It is an aspect of what is traditionally known as character. Conscientious people are generally hardworking and reliable. When taken to extremes, they can also be workaholics, perfectionists, and compulsive behaviors. People with low conscientiousness are not necessarily lazy or immoral, but they tend to be more laid-back, less goal-oriented, and less motivated by success.

(Video) The Big 5 OCEAN Traits Explained - Personality Quizzes

People who score high on the Conscientiousness trait tend to be more organized and less messy at home and in the office. For example, your books are usually organized alphabetically or by subject rather than scattered around the room. Your clothes are more likely to be folded and put away in drawers or closets than thrown on the floor. The presence of planners and to-do lists is also a sign of awareness. Their homes tend to have better lighting than the homes of people who don't.

Awareness is important related to academic success among students and performance in the workplace among managers and employees. Low levels of conscientiousness are strongly associated with procrastination. A significant amount of research shows that conscientiousness is one of the best predictors of job performance and that, after accounting for overall intellectual ability, the other four personality traits in the Big Five don't really help predict job success. Conscientious employees are generally more reliable, motivated and hardworking. Furthermore, conscientiousness is the only personality trait correlated with performance in all job categories. However, kindness and emotional stability can also be important, especially in jobs that involve a significant amount of social interaction.

While conscientiousness is generally considered a positive trait, recent research has found that it can be detrimental to well-being in some situations. In a prospective study of 9,570 people over four years, highly conscientious people suffered more than twice as much when they became unemployed. The authors suggested that this might be because conscientious people make different attributions about why they became unemployed or why they experienced stronger reactions after failure.

Examples of awareness tasks

  • I'm always prepared.
  • I pay attention to details.
  • I do chores right away.
  • I like order
  • I follow a schedule.
  • I am demanding in my work.
  • I leave my things there. (invested)
  • I mess things up. (invested)
  • I often forget to put things in their proper places. (invested)
  • I run away from my duties. (invested)

Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, urgency, and a tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others. The trait is characterized by a pronounced engagement with the outside world. Extroverts enjoy being with people and are often seen as energetic. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!" in exciting moments. They like to talk in a group, assert themselves and attract attention.

Introverts lack the social exuberance and activity level of extroverts. You seem quiet, reserved, considerate, and less involved in the social world. Their lack of social engagement should not be interpreted as shyness or depression. Introverts simply need less stimulation than extroverts and more alone time. They can be very active and energetic, but not social. The extraversion-introversion trait is a central dimension of human personality theories.

Extroverts tend to be sociable, assertive, and interested in seeking outside stimuli. Introverts, on the other hand, are more withdrawn, quiet, and less sociable. They are not necessarily loners, but they tend to have fewer friends. Introversion does not describe social discomfort, but rather social preference: an introvert may not be shy, they just prefer less social activities. Ambiversion is a balance between extroverted and introverted traits. Most people (about 68% of the population) are considered ambiverts, while extroverts and introverts represent the extreme ends of the scale, with about 16% each.

Carl Jung first popularized the terms introversion and extroversion. Virtually all comprehensive personality models include these concepts. Examples include Jung's Analytical Psychology, Eysenck's Three Factor Model, Cattell's 16 Personality Factors, the Big Five Personality Traits, the Four Temperaments, and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.

(Video) Big Five Personality Traits...What The Hell Is That?

Try extroverted elements

  • I'm the life of the party
  • I don't mind being the center of attention.
  • I feel good with people.
  • I start conversations.
  • I talk to a lot of different people at parties.
  • I don't talk much (inverted)
  • I stay in the background. (invested)
  • I have little to say. (invested)
  • I don't like drawing attention to myself. (invested)
  • I'm calm with strangers. (vice versa)[33]

Kindness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others, rather than suspicious and hostile. The trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. The value of a nice person to get along with others. They are generally thoughtful, kind, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with those of others. Likeable people also have an optimistic view of people. They believe that people are inherently honest, decent and trustworthy.

People in conflict prioritize self-interest over dealing with others. They generally don't care about the welfare of others and are less inclined to defend others. Sometimes their skepticism about others' motives leads them to be suspicious, hostile, and uncooperative.

Agreeableness is a tendency to be agreeable and accommodating in social situations. In contemporary personality psychology, likeability is one of the five main dimensions of personality structure, reflecting individual differences in concern for cooperation and social harmony. People who score high on this dimension are empathetic, caring, kind, generous, and helpful. You also have an optimistic view of people. You tend to believe that most people are honest, decent and trustworthy.

People with low agreeableness scores are generally less concerned about the well-being of others, report less empathy, and therefore make less effort to help others. Their skepticism about other people's motives can lead them to become distrustful and unsympathetic. People with very low agreeableness tend to be manipulative in their social relationships. They compete instead of cooperate.

Research also shows that people with high sympathy are more likely to control negative emotions, such as anger, in conflict situations. People high in kindness are more likely to use constructive tactics when in conflict with others, while people low in kindness are more likely to use coercive tactics. They are also more willing to give in to the opponent and may "lose" discussions with people they feel less comfortable with. From their point of view, they didn't really lose an argument, but they had a good relationship with someone else.

A central characteristic of kindness is the positive association with altruism and helping behavior. In all situations, people with high kindness are more likely to show interest and commitment to helping others. Experiments have shown that while most people tend to help their own relatives or when empathy is aroused, good people tend to help even when these conditions are not present. In other words, nice people seem to be "blessed to help" and need no further motivation.

While good people tend to help others, nasty people are more likely to harm them. Researchers have found that low levels of friendliness are associated with hostile thoughts and aggression in teenagers and poor social adjustment.

(Video) 2017 Personality 14: Introduction to Traits/Psychometrics/The Big 5

Test compatibility items

  • I'm interested in people.
  • I sympathize with the feelings of others.
  • I have a soft heart
  • I make time for others.
  • I can feel other people's feelings.
  • I make people feel good.
  • I really don't care about others. (invested)
  • I insult people. (invested)
  • I'm not interested in other people's problems. (invested)
  • I have little concern for others. (invested)

Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, fear or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. Those with high scores on Neuroticism are emotionally reactive and prone to stress. They tend to interpret ordinary situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. Their negative emotional reactions tend to last an extraordinarily long time, which means they are often in a bad mood. These problems regulating emotions can reduce a person with a high level of neuroticism's ability to think clearly, make decisions, and manage stress effectively.

At the other end of the scale, people low in neuroticism are less agitated and less emotional. You tend to be calm, emotionally stable and free of lingering negative feelings. The absence of negative feelings does not mean that people with low scores have a lot of positive feelings.

Neuroticism is a key personality trait in the study of psychology. It is an ongoing tendency to experience negative emotional states. People with high neuroticism scores experience feelings such as fear, anger, guilt and depressed mood more often than average. They respond less to environmental stress and are more likely to interpret common situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They are often confident and shy and may have trouble controlling their impulses and delaying gratification. Neuroticism is a risk factor for "internalizing" mental disorders such as phobias, depression, panic disorders and other anxiety disorders (traditionally called neuroses).

At the other end of the spectrum, people low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less sensitive to stress. You tend to be calm and balanced and feel less tense or upset. Although they have few negative emotions, they don't necessarily have a lot of positive emotions. A high level of positive emotion is an independent trait element of extraversion. Neurotic extroverts, for example, would experience high levels of positive and negative emotional states, a kind of "emotional roller coaster". People with low Neuroticism scores (particularly those with high Extraversion scores) generally report greater happiness and satisfaction with their lives.

Try neuroticism artigos

  • I get upset easily.
  • It changed my mood a lot.
  • I get irritated easily.
  • I get stressed easily.
  • I get angry easily.
  • I have frequent mood swings.
  • I often feel sad.
  • I worry about things.
  • I'm relaxed most of the time. (invested)
  • I rarely feel sad.

There are several websites where you can take the assessment as part of the ongoing survey and get an overview of your percentage scores in each of the 5 areas.

a link isOn here;another one that uses a slightly different interpretation on responses with a graph ison here

(Video) Jordan Peterson | Big 5 Personality Traits



1. The Big Five Personality Traits Crash Course
2. The Big 5 Personality Traits, OCEAN
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3. The Big Five Personality Traits Explained
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4. a BIG poster of my favorite character!||idea for @Bumble_the_bean||
5. The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits aka "The Big Five"
(Dr. Todd Grande)
6. Big 5 Personality Traits: Who Are You, really?
(Metamorphosis 77)


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